Acquirer The term refers to the bank or entity that the merchant uses to process payment card transactions. The acquirer receives authorization requests from merchants, and then forwards the request to the issuing entity (i.e. the bank or financial institution that issued the card) for approval. Examples of acquirers are

VisaMasterCardAmerican Express and Diners Club.

ANPR (Automatic Number Plate Recognition) ANPR typically uses some sort of video surveillance device and OCR technology to read vehicle registration plates.  ANPR is generally used for purposes of vehicles identification. Examples of uses for ANPR include ETC, parking management and traffic monitoring.
ACC (Adaptive Cruise-Control) ACC is a system installed on a vehicle that adjusts vehicle speed to maintain an optimal distance from the vehicle ahead. ACC typically involves no telematics components and relies on on-vehicle sensors
API (Application Programming Interface) An API is a set of programming instructions and standards for accessing a Web-based software application or Web tool. An ITS or telematics company can release their API to the public so that third-party software can be developed for the consumer.
AVL (Automatic Vehicle Location) AVL is a means of determining the location of a vehicle through automatic and electronic means. The location is often determined using GPS and/or RFID and transmitted via GPRS, SMS, and satellite or radio mechanisms.
AVS (Added Value Service) An AVS is any service that is not part of the core services of an ITS. They are normally services that are supplementary to the main purpose of the system, and are available at little to no cost for the operator. The services are then offered to the consumer, thus providing added value to the system.
BOS (Back-office System) A BOS is one that constitutes the technology, software and human resources that are essential to the running of a company. In an ITS system this is the area where data processing and analysis occurs and is typically located away from POS and sensing equipment.
BOSS (Back-office System) See BOS
CAD (Computer-aided Dispatch) CAD is a method of dispatch public transport, emergency services, taxis or others using the use of computers. This often occurs due to emergencies such as breakdowns and accidents. To do this, it is essential that the dispatcher knowing the status of all units through the use of telematics and especially AVL.
CBOS (Central Back-office System) See BOS. Denotes a more central or important BOS.
CBOSS (Central Back-office System) See CBOS
Congestion Charging Congestion pricing refers to a road pricing scheme which is optimised to reduce congestion by charging users for using the road due to high congestion levels. Nowadays, congestion charging is usually fully automatic and electronic and uses technologies such as LPR, DSRC and e-payments.
Credit Card A credit card has the same functionalities as a debit card, but is tied to revolving account which issues a line of credit to the card-holder.
Debit Card A debit card is a plastic payment card that provides the cardholder electronic access to his or her bank account(s) at a financial institution. Some cards have a stored value with which a payment is made, while most relay a message to the cardholder’s bank to withdraw funds from a payee’s designated bank account. The card, where accepted, can be used instead of cash when making purchases.
DSRC (Dedicated Short Range Communication) A DSRC channel is a one-way or two-way short communication channel that has a short-to-medium range. They are primarily designed and used for automotive purposes such as ETC.
EFC (Electronic Fee Collection) The collection of transactions from various road pricing schemes in electronic ways. This often involves telematics and e-payment technologies.
ETC (Electronic Toll Collection) The collection of road tolls by electronic means. This often involves ITS technologies such as LRP or DSRC
Fuel Card A fuel card or fleet card is used as a payment card most commonly for gasoline, diesel, and other fuels at gas stations. Fleet cards can also be used to pay for vehicle maintenance and expenses at the discretion of the fleet owner or manager. The use of a fleet card also eliminates the need for cash carrying, thus increasing the level of security felt by fleet drivers. The elimination of cash also makes it easier to prevent fraudulent transactions from occurring at a fleet owner or manager’s expense.
ITS (Intelligent Transport System) An intelligent transport system is one that uses information and communication technology to improve efficiency of the transport network. An ITS provides the means to both manage and use mobility and transport by making better, safer and more informed decisions for both users and operators. Examples of ITS technologies are wireless communication, sensing and recognition technologies and computation technology, amongst others. There is a wide range of ITS Applications such as Tolling, automatic incident detection, speed measuring, red light enforcement, congestion charging etc.
LPR (License Plate Recognition) See ANPR
MIFARE MIFARE is the NXP Semiconductors-owned trademark of a series of chips widely used in contactless smart cards and proximity cards. Based on the international standard ISO/IEC 14443 Type A, MIFARE has a typical read/write distance of 10 cm.
MMR (Make and Model Recognition) MMR is a supplementary technology to ANPR when simple registration plate recognition is insufficient. MMR also provided details such as vehicle colour, class (e.g. truck or car) and even the make and model of the vehicle.
OBU (On-board Unit) The OBU is typically a small device placed inside the vehicle to identify and conduct road an electronic toll transaction by communicating with a RSU via DSRC.
Payment Card A payment card is a card that can be used by a cardholder and accepted by a merchant to make a payment for a purchase or in payment of some other obligation.
PBOS (Parking Back-office System) The PBOS collect all transactions from a lane controller in a parking management system and provides respective data for carrying out payment transactions. Customers may access the system via web interface managing their account remotely.
PBOSS (Parking Back-office System) See PBOS
POS (Point-of-sale) The location where a  business transaction takes place. This could be due, for example, the purchase of a ticket or the payment of a manual toll.
POS-Terminal A POS terminal is a computerised device at a POS that allows business actions to be performed electronically, without the need of an attendant. Most POS terminals are reserved solely for card payments.
Receiver A device used in RFID that receives signal emitted by a transponder.
RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) RFID is the use of a wireless non-contact system that uses radio-frequency electromagnetic fields to transfer data from a tag attached to an object, for the purposes of automatic identification and tracking. RFID is used in a number of ITS application such as ETC, AVL, CAD and others.
Road Pricing Road pricing is an umbrella term that refers to schemes that are charge road users for the use of road infrastructure. They may be dependent on factors such as class of vehicle, distance, time and others.
RSU (Road-side Unit) The RSU is the roadside infrastructure component of an electronic tolling system. It communicates with the OBU via DSRC to identify and conduct a transaction
Sensor A device that measures physical quantity and transmits electronic data to data processing components based on this measurement.
Smart Card A card that contains integrated circuitry for data management, data processing, identification and authentication purposes. They can either be contact smart cards in which contact has to be made with a card reader; or contactless in which radio waves are used.
Smart Ticketing Smart ticketing refers to ticketing where the entitlement to travel is stored on a microchip. Very often, this is usually in the form of a Smart Card. Smart ticketing also enables a transport operator to store data about passenger travel information, therefore adapting operation of the service (ex: routing, frequency, prices) accordingly.
Transponder A device that emits a radio-frequency signal in response to an interrogating signal. The signal is in turn picked up by a receiver.
UHF (Ultra-High Frequency) UHF are electromagnetic waves between 300MHz and 3GHz. Because their wavelengths range from 1 to 10 decimetres (10cm to 1m), they are sometimes called decimetre waves. They are used in numerous forms of telecommunication.
UTS (Urban Transport System) A transport system located in an urban area. A UTS must be adapted to the transport demands of cities, which are influenced by higher volumes of traffic, higher population densities and a larger concentration of businesses and institutions.
VAS (Value-added Service) See AVS.
Web portal The web portal is the gateway that allows the customer and ITS company to present information or instructions to each other. This usually includes account information, transport schedules, transaction history and payment and other such data. A web portal is not simply a website (which deals with static information) but handles both structured and unstructured data and presents it to the user dependant on their role.
VTC (Video Toll Collection) VTC is a method of ETC using videos or still images of vehicles for identification purposes. VTC generally use LPR and/or MMR technology.
MEV (Mobile Enforcement Vehicle) A MEV is a CCTV-equipped vehicle that patrols a designated area for the purpose of recording parking and moving violations. MEVs typically use LPR technology to identify the vehicles.
GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) GPRS is a packet-orientated data transfer service on 2G and 3G cellular communications systems. GPRs supports WAP, SMS text messaging and other data communications.
GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) GNSS is a satellite navigation system that provides autonomous and global geo-spatial positioning. Using time signals delivered to satellites via radio, one is able to detect their exact time and position on the globe.
GPS (Global Positioning System) GPS refers to NAVSTAR Global Positioning System. GPS is a GNSS that is run by the US Government and is accessible by anyone with a GPS receiver.

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